Thursday, May 31, 2007

Turning off gene makes mice smarter

Various scientists at different universities are studying ways to turn off genes that are overexpressed in individuals with DS. The article below does not necessarily cover Down Syndrome, but it is along the same lines.


Turning off gene makes mice smarter

By Julie Steenhuysen Sun May 27, 1:04 PM ET
CHICAGO (Reuters) - Turning off a gene that has been associated with Alzheimer's disease made mice smarter in the lab, researchers said on Sunday in a finding that lends new insight on learning and may lead to new drugs for memory problems.
They said these mice were far more adept at sensing changes in their environment than their mouse brethren.
"It's pretty rare when you can make an animal smarter," said Dr. James Bibb, assistant professor of psychiatry at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, who led the study published in the journal Nature Neuroscience.
Bibb and colleagues used genetic engineering techniques to breed mice that could be manipulated to switch off Cdk5, a gene that controls production of a brain enzyme linked to diseases marked by the death of neurons in the brain, such as Alzheimer's.
"Any time we're losing neurons, Cdk5 may be contributing to that process. That has made it an area of great interest," Bibb said in a telephone interview.
"We have shown that we can turn off a gene in an adult animal. That has never been done before," he added. When they had tried to breed mice that completely lacked the gene, the pups died at birth.
Bibb said they put the mice though a series of tests and found the altered mice did better than normal mice.
"Everything is more meaningful to these mice," he said. "The increase in sensitivity to their surroundings seems to have made them smarter."
Bibb said the mice were better at tasks based on associated learning, Bibb said.
"It's the most important kind of learning in the animal kingdom. It's how we know where our car is and that is our wife or our husband and that's our kids. It's how we connect things," he added.
The smart mice were better at learning to navigate a water maze and remembering that they got a shock when they were in a certain cage.
"It was very clear right off the bat that the loss of Cdk5 made them have a much stronger associative memory," Bibb said.
"What was really interesting is they not only remembered better, but the next day, if you put them back in those same circumstances, they noticed they were not getting shocked."
Bibb said his work was inspired by the 1999 discovery of "Doogie" mice, a smarter breed of mice developed at Princeton University that were named after the TV program "Doogie Houser," a show that featured a child prodigy.
Those mice were bred by manipulating NR2B, a gene that also plays a role in associative memory.
"It turns out Cdk5 was controlling the regulation of NR2B," Bibb said.
"Maybe by finding these new mechanisms we can find new drugs that improve the cognitive performance of people who have deficits."
He and colleagues are working on developing drugs that could create the same effect without the need for genetic alteration.
"There are other cases -- in post-traumatic stress disorder, addiction and depression -- where we may want to modulate memory not so much to improve it, but to selectively modify it to remove the negative memories that are causing the problems. I think that has a lot of potential," Bibb said.
However, he said the long-term effects are not yet clear.
"If all of your (brain) synapses were magically strengthened all the time, that might be good for the short term, but I'm not sure if it would be good all the time," he said.\;_ylt=ApaeWt8R4GOudStxQEtNeOVkMfQI

Monday, May 21, 2007

One mother's choice to abort - Terrible!!

The below article was published on the front page of Staten Island Advance. This article is totally disgusting and sick! Abortion is horrible for both children with special needs and regular children.

How disgusting is that?!?!!!! The article states,

"She said her action was selflessly motivated, aimed at preserving the quality of life for her living and non-living children. "

Her action was anything BUT "selflessly motivated"! If she really was "selflessly motivated" she would have accepted that baby and be willing to lay down her life for her child. A letter to the editor should be written.

It also goes onto to state,

""Who would have helped me find a good institution? What about the mom who doesn't have a lot of help? What happens to those kids?" "

All she would have had to do was put it up for adoption! But, she could care less for the life of her child (IMO) and decided to kill it.

------- The news article: ---
One mother's choice to abort

Informed that her child would be disabled, she makes a decision she doesn't regret
Sunday, May 20, 2007

STATEN ISLAND, N.Y. -- Every day, Rita of Tottenville thinks about the son she decided not to have.
Yet she has no regrets about the decision she made: On Nov. 12, 2003, she terminated her 19-week pregnancy in a procedure that many would consider a partial birth abortion.

"I never felt the baby," said Rita, a 36-year-old mother of four who considers herself "very Catholic." "It had no movement. He was sick."
Rita underwent a procedure called dilation and extraction after learning that her baby would have Down syndrome.
"I agonized over it," she said. But ultimately, she said, she made the best decision she could for her family. At the time, Rita had two children, ages 6 and 3, and she worried about not being able to take care of them and a developmentally disabled son.
"I will never say I made a mistake," she said in a recent interview with the Advance. She asked that her last name not be used in this article. "It had no chance. I believe in quality of life, not a life where he's going to be miserable."
Although many would strongly disagree with her assertions about the quality of life of people with Down syndrome, Rita is clearly not alone in her thinking. An estimated 90 percent of women who learn their babies will have Down syndrome decide to get abortions, according to research by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, which is a division of the National Institute for Health.
Since the tests to determine this abnormality usually aren't performed until at least the 15th week of development, these abortions account for a significant percentage of so-called partial-birth abortions, said Dr. Albert G. Thomas, chief of family planning services at Mount Sinai Medical Center in Manhattan.
Partial-birth abortions are commonly thought of as surgical procedures performed after the 12th week of fetal development that include removing an intact fetus from the womb via the cervix.
Much information about these procedures and why people undergo them remains clouded by politics. Many doctors, genetic therapists and special education specialists contacted for this article, including those who work with individuals with Down syndrome, declined to comment or did not return phone calls. When asked why, some indicated they did not want to attract controversy; others said they were not equipped to respond.

One mother's choice to abort
Page 2 of 3
Some physicians who support abortion rights assert that the term "partial-birth" is not medical and is so vague that it casts a pall of uncertainty over many procedures that doctors perform. Those opposed to abortion rights disagree, saying that the procedure is clearly defined by both doctors and legislators.
Pro-choice doctors argue that the so-called partial-birth abortion is often the safest method for a mother to terminate a pregnancy that is at least four or five months along. They argue that deciding which abortion procedure to use is a medical decision, not one for the courts. Anti-abortion activists disagree
The difficult decision about whether to abort a fetus with genetic abnormalities has been complicated by a recent U.S. Supreme Court decision, upholding federal legislation that bans partial-birth abortions. The 5-to-4 ruling was unique in that it upheld a law that did not make exceptions for fetuses with genetic abnormalities, nor for a mother's health.
While the ruling has been hailed and condemned by various groups according to their position on abortion rights, there has been less talk about one debate that lies in the center of that ruling -- namely, how such legislation will affect people facing the decision of whether to abort a fetus that has chromosomal problems.
"It will have a profound effect on patients who are caught in these awful circumstances," said Dr. James Grifo, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at New York University.
As is, he said, "These decisions are a lot more complicated than people would realize."
Dr. Grifo said it's important to distinguish situations like Rita's from partial-birth abortions of convenience.
For mothers who, like Rita, face two bad options, he said, "there's nothing good about that situation."
He argued, "To have to make an incredibly difficult decision and then to have legislation that basically dictates what you can or cannot do is practicing medicine without a license."
Rita clearly remembers the 10 days she spent waiting for the results of a test that eventually determined her baby would likely be born mentally retarded. Rita trolled through various Internet sites, talked with her evangelist mother, and discussed the options with her sister, who worked with Down syndrome children.

In November of 2003, Rita, who is a stay-at-home mother, made an agonizing choice: She could not keep a baby who could ultimately force her to pay significantly less attention to her other children and who would subject her family to unknowable amounts of stress. Her mother and sister supported her decision.
She cried with her obstetrician-gynecologist on Staten Island after making her choice, and then drove four hours to a doctor in upstate New York who specialized in the procedure. Insurance paid for Rita to abort her 19-week-old fetus, since it was deemed a medical termination.

Doctors dilated Rita the day before the surgery, and then, the next day, stuck bamboo sticks in her uterus, she recalled. She remembers saying, "If it's going to be painful, bring it on." But she pleaded with the doctors to not allow her baby to feel pain.
When a reporter asked her what happened to the fetus, Rita began to cry.
"Medical waste," she said. Quickly composing herself, she said that people don't know how they would respond until they find themselves in such a situation.
"My two children would have suffered," Rita said. "They would not have had their mom."
One of the more common reasons women get partial birth abortions is due to "genetic abnormalities or congenital abnormalities, where a woman has a fetus that is not compatible with life," Dr. Thomas said.
The National Right to Life Committee disagrees with Dr. Thomas's assessment, saying that partial-birth abortions have less to do with medicine than one particular procedure that it says is hardly ever necessary.
A small percentage of partial-birth abortions involves women whose fetuses have genetic abnormalities, said Douglas Johnson, the NRLC's legislative director. In the case of a fetal medical problem, Johnson said, "Our position is that every member of the human family should be given basic respect and be able to live out their natural life span."
He added, "We believe that child has a right to life, even if that life, regrettably, will only last one day."
Rita remembers coming home after the procedure. It was Christmastime. Her 6-year-old son was learning how to read Dr. Seuss's "Cat in the Hat;" he was loving his schoolwork, T-ball and baseball. His 3-year-old brother was beginning to talk and was quickly assuming the role of his older brother's sidekick.
"I never let them know I was sad," Rita said. "And I was sad. I'm still sad." She recalls her eldest son saying, "Maybe the baby will come for Christmas." Not knowing how to respond, Rita simply said, "Jesus said Mommy's not ready to have a child."
She still carries the black-and-white images from the last sonogram of her unborn fetus. She prays with her children every night, and melts when she sees a child with Down syndrome. While she doesn't accept Communion, she doesn't think she did anything wrong, and believes that "God is a good God. God forgives us."
After reading comments said by various politicians and pundits about the ills of partial-birth abortion, Rita said she felt she had to tell her story. She said her action was selflessly motivated, aimed at preserving the quality of life for her living and non-living children.
"I think I did the right thing for all my children," she added. "Who would have helped me find a good institution? What about the mom who doesn't have a lot of help? What happens to those kids?"
Lisa Schneider covers health news for the Advance. She may be reached at

Thursday, May 10, 2007

The Benefits of Yogurt by WebMD

The Benefits of Yogurt

What's tasty, easy, and has lots of health benefits? Yogurt!

By Elaine Magee, RD, MPH WebMD Weight Loss Clinic-Feature
Reviewed by Louise Chang, MD

Have you noticed that the yogurt section of most grocery stores has practically taken over the dairy aisle? It’s getting harder to find more traditional dairy foods, such as cottage cheese and sour cream, amid the sea of yogurt options. But it only makes sense that a food with as many health benefits as yogurt be given prime real estate in the supermarket.

And just what are the health benefits of yogurt?
First off, your body needs to have a healthy amount of ''good'' bacteria in the digestive tract, and many yogurts are made using active, good bacteria. One of the words you’ll be hearing more of in relation to yogurt is ''probiotics.'' Probiotic, which literally means ''for life,'' refers to living organisms that can result in a health benefit when eaten in adequate amounts.

Miguel Freitas, PhD, medical marketing manager for Dannon Co., says the benefits associated with probiotics are specific to certain strains of these "good" bacteria. Many provide their benefits by adjusting the microflora (the natural balance of organisms) in the intestines, or by acting directly on body functions, such as digestion or immune function. (Keep in mind that the only yogurts that contain probiotics are those that say "live and active cultures" on the label.)

And let us not forget that yogurt comes from milk. So yogurt eaters will also get a dose of animal protein (about 9 grams per 6-ounce serving), plus several other nutrients found in dairy foods, like calcium, vitamin B-2, B-12, potassium, and magnesium.

In fact, the health benefits of yogurt are so impressive that many health-conscious people make it a daily habit. Here are five possible health benefits of having a yogurt a day:

Benefit No. 1: Yogurt May Help Prevent Osteoporosis
''Adequate nutrition plays a major role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, and the micronutrients of greatest importance are calcium and vitamin D,'' says Jeri Nieves, PhD, MS, director of bone density testing at New York’s Helen Hayes Hospital.
Calcium has been shown to have beneficial effects on bone mass in people of all ages, although the results are not always consistent, says Nieves, also an assistant professor of clinical epidemiology at Columbia University.
''The combination of calcium and vitamin D has a clear skeletal benefit, provided the dose of vitamin D is sufficiently high,'' she adds.
And what qualifies as ''sufficiently high?''
Currently, 400 IU per day is considered an adequate intake of vitamin D for people ages 51-70, Nieves says. (Look for the Daily Value amount listed on food labels.) But more may be better.
''This amount is likely to be sufficient for most young adults for skeletal health, although many would argue that for overall health, more than the 400 IU may be required, even at these younger ages,'' Nieves said in an email interview.
Nieves believes that older people specifically can benefit from more vitamin D.
Many dairy products, including some yogurts, are made with added vitamin D. Find out which brands have added vitamin D by checking out the table below, and by reading labels when you shop.

Benefit No. 2: Yogurt May Reduce the Risk of High Blood Pressure
A recent study, which followed more than 5,000 Spanish university graduates for about two years, found a link between dairy intake and risk of high blood pressure.
''We observed a 50% reduction in the risk of developing high blood pressure among people eating 2-3 servings of low-fat dairy a day (or more), compared with those without any intake,'' Alvaro Alonso, MD, PhD, a researcher in the department of epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health, said in an email interview.
Although most of the low-fat dairy consumed by the study subjects was as milk, Alvaro believes low-fat yogurt would likely have the same effect.

Benefit No. 3: Yogurt With Active Cultures Helps the Gut
Yogurt with active cultures may help certain gastrointestinal conditions, including:
Lactose intolerance
Colon cancer
Inflammatory bowel disease
H. pylori infection
That's what researchers from the Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University concluded in a recent review article.
The benefits are thought to be due to:
Changes in the microflora of the gut
The time food takes to go through the bowel
Enhancement of the body's immune system
A recent Taiwanese study looked at the effects of yogurt containing lactobacillus and bifidobacterium on 138 people with persistent H. pylori infections.
The researchers found that the yogurt improved the efficacy of four-drug therapy.
H. pylori is a type of bacteria that can cause infection in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine. It can lead to ulcers and can increase the risk of developing stomach cancer.

Benefit No. 4: Yogurt With Active Cultures May Discourage Vaginal Infections
Candida or "yeast" vaginal infections are a common problem for women with diabetes. In a small study, seven diabetic women with chronic Candidal vaginitis consumed 6 ounces of frozen aspartame-sweetened yogurt per day (with or without active cultures).
Even though most of the women had poor blood sugar control throughout the study, the vaginal pH (measure of acidity or basicity) of the group eating yogurt with active cultures dropped from 6.0 to 4.0 (normal pH is 4.0-4.5). These women also reported a decrease in Candida infections. The women eating the yogurt without active cultures remained at pH 6.0.

Benefit No. 5: Yogurt May Help You Feel Fuller
A study from the University of Washington in Seattle tested hunger, fullness, and calories eaten at the next meal on 16 men and 16 women who had a 200-calorie snack. The snack was either:
Semisolid yogurt containing pieces of peach and eaten with a spoon
The same yogurt in drinkable form
A peach-flavored dairy beverage
Peach juice

Although those who had the yogurt snacks did not eat fewer calories at the next meal, both types of yogurt resulted in lower hunger ratings and higher fullness ratings than either of the other snacks.

10 Tips for Buying and Eating Yogurt
Here are 10 things to consider when buying and eating yogurt.

1. Decide Between Whole-Milk, Low-fat or Nonfat Yogurt
When buying yogurt, your first decision is whether you want regular-fat, low-fat, or fat-free. You probably have a favorite brand, with just the right texture or tang for your taste buds. If so, stick with it. But do check the label for sugar content. Some flavors and brands have more than others.

Here are a few examples:

Low-Fat Yogurt
Saturated fat
% Calories from sugar
Vitamin D
(6 ounces)


(% Daily Value)
(%Daily Value)
Dannon Creamy
Fruit Blends,
Strawberry flavor
Dannon Activia,
Blueberry flavor
Yoplait Original
99% Fat Free,
Fruit flavored
Stonyfield Farms
Organic Low-Fat,
Fruit flavored

"Light" Yogurt
Saturated fat
% Calories from sugar
Vitamin D
(6 ounces)


(% Daily Value)
(%Daily Value)
Dannon Light 'n Fit, Fruit flavored
Yoplait Light, Fruit flavored

2. Choose Your Sweetener
The other decision is whether you want artificial sweeteners (which are used in most ''light'' yogurts) or whether you’re OK with most of the calories coming from sugar. If you are sensitive to aftertastes, you may want to avoid light yogurts. If you don't mind NutraSweet, there are lots of light yogurts to choose from, and all taste pretty good.

3. Look for Active Cultures and Probiotics
To make sure your yogurt contains active cultures, check the label. Most brands will have a graphic that says ''live and active cultures.''
If you want to know which specific active cultures your yogurt contains, look to the label again. Under the list of ingredients, many brands list the specific active cultures. For Activia by Dannon, for example, L.Bulgaricus, S.Thermophilus, and bifidobacterium are listed. This particular yogurt contains the probiotic culture bifidus regularis, which works to regulate your digestive system. So if constipation is your challenge, this might be the probiotic for you.

4. Team Yogurt With Flaxseed
Get in the habit of stirring in a tablespoon of ground flaxseed every time you reach for a yogurt. A tablespoon of ground flaxseed will add almost 3 grams of fiber and approximately 2 grams of healthy plant omega-3s, according to the product label on Premium Gold brand ground golden flaxseed.

5. Look for Vitamin D
When enjoying calcium-rich yogurt, why not choose one that also boosts your intake of vitamin D? Some brands list 0% of the Daily Value for vitamin D; others have 20%. (See the table above.)

6. Make Yogurt Part of the Perfect Snack
Make the perfect snack by pairing high-protein yogurt with a high-fiber food like fruit (fresh or frozen) and/or a high-fiber breakfast cereal. You can find many lower-sugar breakfast cereals with 4 or more grams of fiber per serving.

7. Whip Up a Creamier Smoothie With Yogurt
Make your smoothie creamy and thick by adding yogurt instead of ice cream or frozen yogurt. Cup for cup, light and low-fat yogurt is higher in protein and calcium than light ice cream. It's also usually lower in fat, saturated fat, and calories.

8. Customize Your Yogurt
If you want to create your own flavored yogurt, start with your favorite plain yogurt and stir in all sorts of foods and flavors. Here are a few ideas:
Add chopped strawberries (1/4 cup) and 1/8 teaspoon of vanilla extract to 6 ounces of plain yogurt to make Strawberries and Cream Yogurt.
Add canned crushed pineapple (1/8 cup) and a tablespoon of flaked or shredded coconut to 6 ounces of plain yogurt to make Pina Colada Yogurt.
Add 1 tablespoon of cool espresso or extra-strong coffee and 1 tablespoon of chocolate syrup to 6 ounces of plain yogurt to make Mochaccino Yogurt.
Add 1/4 cup chopped orange segments or mandarin oranges and 1 tablespoon reduced-sugar orange marmalade to 6 ounces of plain yogurt to make Orange Burst Yogurt.

9. Eat Yogurt at Work
Buy some yogurt and keep it in the office refrigerator (don’t forget to put your name on it). On those days when you need a morning or afternoon snack, that yogurt will be ready for you.

10. Use Yogurt in Recipes
Yogurt works as a substitute ingredient in all sorts of recipes. Plain yogurt can take the place of sour cream in a pinch (over baked potatoes or garnishing enchiladas). You can also substitute a complementary flavor of yogurt for some of the oil or butter called for in a muffin, brownie, or cake recipe. It can replace all of the fat called for in cake mixes, too.

Published March 7, 2007.
WebMD Weight Loss Clinic-Feature
SOURCES: Alonso A. et al. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, November 2005; vol 82: pp 972-979. Adolfsson O., et al., American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, August 2004; vol 80: pp 245-256. Sheu B-S et al., American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, April 2006; vol 83: pp 864-869. Chauncey K.B., et al., Journal of the American Dietetic Association, September 1999; vol 99: Issue 9 (Suppl); p A100. Drewnowski A., et al, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, April 2006; vol106, Issue 4: pp 550-557. ESHA Research, Food Processor Nutrition Analysis software. Jeri W. Nieves, PhD, MS, assistant professor of clinical epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University; director of bone density testing, Helen Hayes Hospital, New York. Alvaro Alonso, MD, PhD, researcher, department of epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health
Reviewed on March 05, 2007
© 2007 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved.

Wednesday, May 9, 2007

FDA Warns About Fake Internet Drugs

This was on WebMD's website the other day. Thought some may find it of interest.

FDA Warns About Fake Internet Drugs
FDA Says 24 Web Sites May Be Involved in Distributing Counterfeit Prescription Drugs

By Miranda Hitti WebMD Medical News
Reviewed by Louise Chang, MD

May 1, 2007 -- The FDA today strongly cautioned consumers about purchasing drugs from 24 web sites that may be involved in the distribution of counterfeit drugs.

The FDA links two of the 24 web sites to counterfeit versions of the weight loss drug Xenical.

The FDA says that Xenical's maker, the drug company Roche, tested three phony Xenical pills obtained from and
One phony Xenical pill contained the active ingredient in another weight loss drug. The two other fake Xenical pills contained only talc and starch, according to the FDA.

The FDA has previously linked four of the 24 web sites to counterfeit versions of the flu drug Tamiflu and counterfeit versions of the erectile dysfunction drug Cialis.

Overseas Web Sites

The web sites, which the FDA says appear to be operated outside the U.S., are:

The 24 web sites appear on under the "Our Websites" heading, the FDA notes.

FDA's Advice to Consumers

The FDA says consumers using online pharmacies should be wary if there is no way to contact a web site pharmacy by phone, if prices are dramatically lower than the competition, or if no prescription from your doctor is required.
The FDA's web site includes these safety tips for people buying prescription drugs online:

Make sure the web site requires a prescription.

Make sure the web site has a pharmacist available for questions.

Buy only from licensed pharmacies located in the U.S.

Don't provide personal information such as credit card numbers unless you're sure the web site will protect that information.

The FDA urges consumers to visit for more information before buying prescription drugs over the Internet.

Sunday, May 6, 2007

Cellfood - Not What It's Made Out To Be!

Someone on one of the DS listservs I am on was asking about a supplement called Cellfood. I told them I'd look into it and this is what I found. I thought I'd post it up here for anyone else interested.


Cellfood – Not What It’s Made Out To Be!

I looked at the ingredients of Cellfood and there are many unnecessary and potentially harmful substances in it. The list of ingredients in Cellfood is massive! I was shocked to see how many ingredients were in it. When I started looking at each ingredient, I started realizing there are a lot of ingredients in here which are not necessary for the human body to consume as a dietary supplement. Several of these substances are particularly dangerous for an individual with Down Syndrome. Let’s look at that now:

Trace Minerals:
Unnecessary: Actinium, Antimony, Argon, Astatine, Barium, Berylium, Bismuth, Bromine, Carbon, Cerium, Cesium, Cobalt, Dysprosium, Erbium, Europium, Fluorine, Gadolinium, Gallium, Germanium, Gold, Hafnium, Helium, Holmium, Hydrogen, Indium, Iridium, Krypton, Lanthanum, Lutetium, Neodymium, Neon, Nickel, Niobium, Nitrogen, Osmium, Oxygen, Palladium, Platinum, Polonium, Praseodymium, Promethium, Rhenium, Rhodium, Rubidium, Ruthenium, Samarium, Silica, Silicon, Silver, Sodium, Sulfur, Tantalum, Technetium, Tellurium, Terbium, Thallium, Thorium, Tin, Titanium, Tungsten, Vanadium, Xenon, Ytterbium, Zirconium.
Harmful: Copper, Iron. Some of the other metals such as Gold, Tin, Nickel etc.
*Individuals with DS have problems with too much copper already. Iron, given unnecessarly (i.e. not low or anemic) causes increased oxidative stress and other problems. Heavy metal deposits have been found in the brains of AD patients and we know that individuals with DS have a higher chance of developing AD at an earlier age than most individuals. Excess sulfur is an issue in individuals with DS, therefore additional sulfur should not be given.

Metabolic & Digestive Enzymes:
Harmful: Copper Enzymes: Tyrosinase, Ascorbic Acid, Oxidase. Iron Enzymes: Catalase, Cytochrome oxidase, Peroxidase.
*As I mentioned above copper is harmful for individuals with DS. And, iron should be not be given unless it is absolutely needed. The enzymes Oxidase, Catalase and Peroxidase all are implicated in the increased oxidative stress and pro-oxidant state of individuals with DS, therefore they should not be given.

Amino Acids:
Unnecessary: Alanine, Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, Glycine, Threonine, Valine.
Harmful: Cystine, Serine.
*Both Cystine and Serine are in excess amounts in an individual with DS, due to disturbances in biochemical processes. These should not be given, unless they are absolutely needed (i.e. deficient).

The list of ingredients from Cellfood is below.
Trace Minerals
(Note the absence of aluminum, cadmium, chlorine, lead, mercury, and radium)

Metabolic and Digestive Enzymes
Hydrolases, Carbohydrases: Maltase, Sucrase, Emulsin.
Nucleases: Polynucleotidase, Nucleotidase.
Hydrases: Fumarase, Enolase.
Peptidases: Aminopolypeptidase, Dipeptidase, Prolinase.
Esterases: Lipase, Phosphotase, Sulfatase.
Copper Enzymes: Tyrosinase, Ascorbic Acid, Oxidase
Iron Enzymes: Catalase, Cytochrome oxidase, Peroxidase
Enzymes containing coenzymes 1 and/or 2: Lactic Dehydrogenase, Robison Ester, Dehydrogenase
Enzymes which reduce cytochrome: Succinic Dehydrogenase
Yellow Enzymes: Warburg's Old Yellow Enzymes, Diaphorase, Haas Enzyme, Cytochrome C reductase
Amidase: Urease
Mutases: Aldehyde Mutase, Glyoxalase
Desmolases: Zymohexase, Carboxylase
Other Enzymes: Phosphorylase, Phosphohexisomerase, Hexokinase, Phosphoglumutase

Amino Acids
Aspartic Acid
Glutamic Acid
All information regarding Cellfood’s ingredients is from their website -

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